Making the Most of Your Evening Routine

Everyone knows that sleep is critical to good health. Sleep helps us stay focused during the day, aids in regulating mood, is vital for our body to heal, and allows for greater productivity. It is an important factor in supporting overall balanced mental, emotional, and physical health. Getting too few hours of sleep can contribute to a number of health issues including hypertension, arrhythmia, stroke, obesity, type 2 diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, impaired immune function, memory loss, cognitive difficulties, and others.1 Sleep deprivation is even classified as a form of torture. 2

It is surreal to know that all of these problems and more can occur from the seemingly harmless act of losing even just a few hours of sleep each night. In contemporary society where time is often synonymous with money, sleep may take a back seat to other aspects of life that require time and attention. With professional, academic, social and family obligations all vying for the finite 24-hours in each day, it becomes more obvious how so many people aren’t getting enough sleep each night.

While most people are aware that lack of sleep and poor sleep quality negatively impacts their daily lives, they may not completely understand why their sleep is disturbed or what they can do to improve it. While the time spent sleeping is important, the quality of that sleep is of equal concern. If sleep is disrupted and not restful, the body and mind are not given ample opportunity to repair and prepare for the upcoming challenges of the next day.

 

Most people have a “bedtime routine” that they more or less follow each night. There is actually a name for these rituals, behaviors, and habits – they are called sleep hygiene. Many people understand the term “hygiene” to have a similar meaning to “cleanliness,” but the true meaning of hygiene includes activities and habits that positively impact one’s health. Hygiene habits of all kinds are relevant to health and well-being as their typical goal is avoiding disease. Sleep hygiene is no exception.

Considerations for improving sleep hygiene should be the go-to when sleep difficulties arise. There are things that contribute to poor sleep such as routinely pulling all-nighters or working swing shifts, trying to “make up” for lost sleep by sleeping in, or even drinking alcohol at night. Good sleep hygiene helps to ensure higher-quality and more restful sleep on a regular basis. Optimizing daily habits and creating a positive sleeping environment are critically important in achieving restful and rejuvenating sleep.

Cultivating positive sleep habits

Establish a consistent sleep schedule

We all need a specified amount of sleep in a 24-hour period. That amount can vary from approximately seven to nine hours and also may change depending on age and medical conditions. Getting less than the optimal amount of sleep can result in fatigue and difficulty functioning the next day, while getting too much sleep (e.g. taking a nap or sleeping longer than needed) can create difficulties in both falling asleep and staying asleep on subsequent nights.

Establish healthy lifestyle habits

Maintaining regular exercise routines and consuming a healthy diet can go a long way towards supporting optimal sleep patterns. Alcohol, fatty, processed and spicy foods can be the most disruptive to sleep. Drinking too much liquid close to bedtime can also cause us to wake in the night. Protein and other foods high in amino acids, antioxidants and vitamins help regulate blood sugar and are beneficial to supporting the hormones needed to achieve restful sleep. Exercising helps support energy production, regulate blood sugar, and reduce the impact of stress, anxiety and depression. However, exercising too close to bedtime can have a stimulatory effect and make it more difficult to initiate sleep.

Get enough natural light during the day

The body’s circadian rhythm, the system largely responsible for regulation of the balance of sleep and wakefulness, is triggered by exposure to light and darkness. Following the natural cycle of getting ample amounts of natural light in the morning and throughout the daylight hours accompanied by adequate darkness at night helps keep the circadian rhythm balanced.

Wind down and relax before bedtime

Preparing the mind and body to sleep is an important task. All too often people are either staring at a screen or rushing from one activity to the next trying to squeeze in one last thing before bed.  Additionally, dwelling on problems or allowing disagreements into the bedroom can cause wakefulness and worry that may interfere with sleep. Taking time for activities like meditation, prayer, or slow, gentle stretching can help gently de-stress the mind, slow brainwaves down, and ease the body into sleep.

If spending time in front of a screen before bed, consider using blue blocking eyewear. Exposure to blue-wavelength light from electronic devices may affect sleep by suppressing melatonin and interfering with sleep-wake cycles.3 Blue blocking eyewear can mitigate this leading to improved sleep patterns, however it is best to turn off all electronics at least an hour before bedtime if possible.

Cultivating a Sleep Supportive Environment

Keep the bedroom dark

Exposing the body and brain to light as it is found in nature (light during the day, dark at night) is helpful for supporting sleep. Some people will also find the gradual change of light intensity during dawn and dusk helpful in stimulating their body’s endocrine regulation of sleep. Taking steps to limit light exposure in the evening such as using blue blocking glasses, using blackout window coverings, or wearing a sleep mask can be especially helpful.

Keep the bedroom quiet

Distracting or unnecessary noises can disrupt sleep quantity and quality. If noises are making falling or staying asleep a challenge, consider using earplugs, a fan or a white noise machine to block out distracting noises.

Keep the bedroom cool

In preparation for sleep, the body’s temperature begins to decrease, and maintaining a bedroom that is cooler (in the neighborhood of 60-68 degrees F) can help facilitate sleep by supporting the body’s drop in temperature. It has been shown that a cooler core body temperature, and specifically a cooler brain temperature, increases melatonin production and results in a better night’s sleep.3

Keep electronics out

Pretty much every electronic screen device from TVs to cellphones and portable gaming systems should be eliminated before bedtime. The light emitting from these types of devices can mimic sunlight in our brain, causing the circadian rhythm to become confused. Additionally, the material may be too mentally stimulating, leading to feelings of wakefulness that may interfere with falling asleep.4 If you need to have devices in the bedroom (like air filters), black electrical tape can be placed over light sources.

*Pro tip: Bring a small roll of black tape with you when traveling to block out random lights in the hotel room.

Taking steps to improve sleep hygiene can be key in getting a full night of quality sleep. Of course, the ideal sleep hygiene routine is extremely varied and individual. What works for one person may not be enough for someone else. The most important thing is that each individual person does what works for them in terms of promoting positive sleep hygiene routines.

If you’ve tried everything above and are still having trouble sleeping, naturopathic medical doctors can help identify the root cause of sleep disruption and work to get you back to sleeping like a baby! Click here to find an ND near you in the US and Canada.

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Naturopathic Doctors Contribute to Patient Safety

While most people would consider traveling on an airplane to be a riskier activity than seeing their doctor, the World Health Organization reports that there is just a one in a million chance of being harmed while flying. Compare that with a whopping 1 in 300 chance of a patient being harmed by the actions (or inactions) of health care providers.1 Iatrogenic events, which describe illnesses caused by medical intervention,  now constitute the third leading cause of death in the US.2 Breakdown in communication is a large contributor to poor patient outcomes. The good news is that naturopathic doctors excel in providing gentle, lower risk therapies and creating a profound foundation of trust in the doctor-patient relationship.

The origins of patient safety concerns can be traced back to the beginning of medicine and the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates. However, some credit famous nurse, Florence Nightingale, as being the “Mother of Patient Safety and Healthcare Design.”3 This largely came about because of her view that the concepts of patient safety, healthcare quality, and outcomes of care must be viewed as a whole, together, and not in isolation from one another.

In the complexities of modern healthcare, many professional groups have published definitions of patient safety. Over time, the definition has evolved to identify the components of appropriate patient care and safety in the 21st century. Modern ideals of patient safety focus upon the overall quality of care rather than the quantified indicators and outcomes of the past. The Institute of Medicine provides that, “quality care is safe, effective, patient centered, timely, efficient, and equitable.”The concept of patient safety as the primary focus is the foundation on which modern, quality patient care is centered.

There are a number of ways in which naturopathic doctors can positively support patient safety in the contemporary medical setting:

Naturopathic doctors are experts in natural therapeutics dosing and usage.

We often hear about the potential side effects of pharmaceutical medications; however, we rarely hear of the potential for side effects of vitamins, minerals, and other natural therapeutics. This can lead to the mistaken impression that simply because something is natural that it is also safe and free from risk. For example, vitamin B6 is a commonly consumed supplement, but taking too high of a dose for an extended time can lead to neuropathy (the feeling of pins and needles) in the extremities. Naturopathic physicians are extensively trained in the therapeutic dosing of natural substances and can provide knowledgeable input on their safe and effective, evidence-informed use.

Naturopathic doctors are the authority in detecting and monitoring herb/nutrient-drug interactions.

According to the Council for Responsible Nutrition’s 2018 Consumer Survey on Dietary Supplements, 75% of American adults take some kind of dietary supplement.5 Some of the potential for interactions are well-known within the mainstream medical community such as Vitamin K and anti-clotting drugs like Warfarin, but many more are not as recognized, particularly when it comes to herbal supplementation. Core to naturopathic medical training includes learning about herb/nutrient-drug interactions as well as how to determine the potential for such interactions when limited empirical safety data exists. Awareness and monitoring for interactions enhances patient safety.

tranfer credit - advanced standing students

Naturopathic doctors are collaborative, valuable members of integrative healthcare teams.

The contemporary medical training model has largely resulted in a systems-based approach with each specialty physician covering a component of patient care. As such, the implementation of healthcare teams is becoming more common. Naturopathic physicians are trained to work collaboratively not only with their patient, but with other healthcare providers as well. Including naturopathic physicians on the healthcare team can have a number of benefits for the patient, and can support patient safety by increased monitoring for nutrient/herb-drug interactions, increased emphasis on prevention, identification of the root cause of illness, and lifestyle factors impacting disease. Naturopathic physicians also play an important role in referrals to both conventional and integrative practitioners, again supporting a team-based, patient-centered experience.

Naturopathic doctors can serve as primary care providers, thus reducing the burden on an already bulging medical system facing a significant provider shortage.

A delay in diagnosis can result in a delay in treatment. This may increase mortality risk, as well as reduce the number of treatment options available to a patient making more invasive treatments with higher risk necessary.6,7 Among the key determinants in delayed diagnosis include factors such as missed diagnoses, incorrect diagnoses, and lack of access to care. Physician availability can be a key factor in reducing access to care. Recent estimates suggest that the US will face a significant physician shortage in the near future. Data published in 2018 by the American Association of Medical Colleges revealed a projected shortage of as many as 121,300 doctors by the end of the next decade.8 The shortage is expected to impact both primary care as well as specialty care.8 Graduates of accredited naturopathic medical colleges are trained diagnosticians who are well positioned to help fill this void and minimize delays in receiving a diagnosis and initiating care.

NDs see patients who may not have otherwise sought care.

Each year there is a portion of the population who choose to forgo conventional medical care. A substantial number turn to alternative medicine instead. Studies examining this trend have shown that from 16-26% of the US adult population does not receive conventional care.9 People choose to receive medical care outside the conventional setting for a number of reasons. Among these is interest in alternative approaches, financial concerns, religious basis for natural approaches, as well as the belief that conventional therapies would be of no help.9 For those that choose to forgo conventional care, about 25% seek alternative care.9

Naturopathic doctors are trained to provide patient-centered, specific, and individualized treatments that support prevention and overall wellness.

The training naturopathic physicians receive in naturopathic medical school centers on getting to know each patient on a deep level, and developing treatments that focus not only on improving the current condition but also in sustaining long-term health. This in-depth exploration can uncover issues that may have otherwise gone unreported. The totality of the naturopathic medical interview provides a substantial informational foundation in which the naturopathic physician can use to support the health of the patient, and implement prevention strategies to preserve health moving forward.  Additionally, because of the significant time investment naturopathic physicians utilize in developing a relationship with their patient (first visit is often one-two hours), the patient may be more likely to reveal certain health habits that they might not otherwise share in a medical setting. Chief among these habits is their supplement use and lifestyle factors that may play a role in disease. Research has shown that although a substantial number of people use supplements, including 64% of those taking a prescription medication, and only half disclose their use to their conventional provider.10,11 Naturopathic physicians are trained to address these issues and ensure the safety of supplement, herb, and nutrient protocols.

If you want to explore a deep healing relationship with a naturopathic physician or are curious about what they do before applying to ND school, click here for a directory of NDs in the US and Canada.

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Opportunities Abound for UBSNM Students

The University of Bridgeport School of Naturopathic Medicine is the only school on the eastern seaboard in the United States.  As one of the many programs within the College of Health Sciences, the School integrates their clinic facilities with the School of Chiropractic and the Acupuncture Institute.  The academic components of the naturopathic program are combined with other health science programs as well as other University departments. Some of the faculty members in the School of Naturopathic Medicine participate in collaborative research efforts with multiple programs, providing our students opportunities to grow their knowledge and skills with students and faculty in other disciplines.

UBSNM students have a broad range of clinical opportunities, working with community members in assisted living facilities, centers of those struggling with addictions, YMCA residential facilities, families and staff at a local elementary school, and a church affiliated center. And of course, these community clinics are in addition to the on-site UB Clinics.

As we are in the process of a teach-out, we remain strong and vibrant. Students and faculty members are exploring ideas for opportunities that will continue to offer care for patients who currently seek naturopathic services through the no cost community clinics and the reduced cost appointments at the UB Clinics.

The DC Federal Legislative Initiative (FLI) provides an excellent opportunity for students to learn and become involved with the political aspect of the naturopathic profession.  Being just a four to five-hour train ride to Washington, DC, the University of Bridgeport is always well-represented at the DC FLI by the School of Naturopathic Medicine students, with nearly 50% of the student body in attendance in one recent year.

Spring break finds many students on the annual Jamaica botanical medicine trip led by UBSNM faculty member Dr. Eugene Zampieron. Dr. “Z” organizes and joins in the wide variety of opportunities that students experience. Local herbs and practices are studied, taught by local healers, bush doctors, Blue Mountain farmers, and the experiential course affords opportunities to observe native medicine in practice.  Students hike deep into the rain forests to learn about the plants and medicines of the region.  And of course, the trip is not without the firsthand experience of traditional Jamaican food, drumming and dancing, swimming in natural pools and under the Jamaican waterfalls.

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Naturopathic Nutrition Therapy

Across cultures, borders, and ethnic lines, people around the world hold a deep personal connection to food. The emotional bond they have to the foods they love is multilayered. Food brings people together, adding merriment, joy, and interest to a variety of occasions from a quiet family dinner at home, to a rousing culinary exploration of a new restaurant with friends, religious and cultural traditions, or landmark life events like weddings and graduations. A home-cooked meal can also be associated with a show of affection. Nutrition is a fundamental component of the journey toward optimal health and well-being. The personal and emotional connections people have to the foods that they eat are among the chief reasons why long-lasting nutritional change is such a challenge, even in the face of medical necessity or chronic disease risk.

Chronic diseases are perhaps the most prevalent causes of mortality and morbidity in the US and cost the American people billions of dollars per year, both in terms of health care costs and loss of productivity.1 Chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and arthritis affect almost half of the American adult population, and in many cases may be preventable with healthier dietary choices.2 The health risk factors of physical inactivity, tobacco use and exposure and poor nutrition are the leading causes of chronic disease.1 It is also interesting to note that in the face of skyrocketing rates of chronic diseases that have a strong nutritional component such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and heart disease, most conventional medical providers are not adequately trained to address nutritional habits in a way that sufficiently supports their patients in making foundational, permanent changes that could help improve overall vitality or slow disease development or propagation.

Physicians trained through conventional medical training receive only a nominal amount of nutrition education. In a 2015 study, researchers surveyed all 133 four-year conventional medical programs in the US and found that out of 121 medical schools that responded, about 71% provide less than 25 hours of nutrition education with 36% providing less than 12 hours. Fewer than half of all schools report teaching any nutrition during clinical rotations, accounting for an average of only 4.7 hours overall.3 In contrast, the nutrition curriculum in naturopathic medical school is centered on a series of rigorous, evidence informed nutrition courses that offer a cumulative base of knowledge that is built over the entire four-year education program. Naturopathic medical curricula at a four-year, accredited college of naturopathic medicine includes an average of 155 hours of classroom nutrition education coupled with over 1200 hours of clinical education wherein application of nutrition principles is a foundational component of nearly every patient interaction.4

At four-year accredited naturopathic medical schools, nutrition education includes specific training in a broad array of nutritional principles. Having an in-depth knowledge of each, along with an understanding of how they all fit together, coupled with many hours of clinical application leads naturopathic physicians to be among the most highly skilled medical practitioners. NDs are expert in the development and implementation of individualized, tailored nutritional prescriptions that support patient outcomes and empower patients to execute better nutrition choices. Optimized nutrition forms the foundation for health across all aspects of physical, emotional, spiritual, and intellectual health. Some examples of naturopathic nutrition training include intensive study of:

Dietary Analysis and Assessment

Dietary Analysis and Assessment is the comprehensive evaluation of nutrient intake including intensive study of various nutrition therapies and their evidentiary support in medical research and clinical observations as well as determining individual micro- and macro- nutrient needs based on individual factors, evaluation of what current intakes of macro- and micronutrients are given the individual dietary intake as a means of establishing a basis for nutrient deficiencies, excesses, imbalances, or other dysfunction including outright nutrition based pathologies.

Clinical and Specialized Nutrition Therapy

Clinical and Specialized Nutrition Therapy is an application of nutrition principles, protocols, and evidence based dietary systems (i.e. Mediterranean diet) for individual health concerns and conditions. NDs utilize specific nutrients in patient management, providing nutrition therapy to specialty sub-populations like nursing mothers, pediatrics, performance athletes, disordered eating, metabolic syndrome, and others.

Nutritional therapy is core to comprehensive naturopathic care. With the goal of restoring balance through appropriate nourishment, it is focused on promoting vitality and well-being through the use of specific, individual dietary interventions, use of therapeutic, personalized dietary prescriptions, and can also include the use of herbs, supplements, and functional foods as well. The impact of the foods we are exposed to plays a direct role in our health from preconception to death. The foods we choose to eat on a daily basis can have important effects related to disease susceptibility, proper physical, mental, and intellectual development, inflammation and immunity. Whether these effects are taking us in a positive direction or a negative one depends on the choices we make.

The role that nutrition plays in not only the restoration of health but also the maintenance of health cannot be overstated. Going back as far as the times of Hippocrates, it was the steadfast belief that food should be the primary medicine. In the last century we have seen a dramatic drop in infectious disease and much lower rates of nutrient deficiencies, but this came with a trade-off.2 As the incidence and mortality caused by infectious disease significantly decreased, the rates of chronic lifestyle-related diseases have risen.2 At a population level, the quality of the American diet has drastically decreased over time with 60% of calorie consumption coming from ultra-processed foods, with less of a focus on whole foods and cooking from scratch.5 Unfortunately, a loss of connection to where our food comes from, and to the value of fresh, seasonal, local food means that many people have also lost sight of the notion that the foods we eat are actually fuel for the body, and that the purpose of food is not only for enjoyment but also to provide the body with what it needs to function optimally and provide the best opportunity for maximal overall health, well-being, and longevity.

Macro- and Micronutrient Therapy

Macro and Micronutrient Therapy incorporates learning the nutritional biochemistry behind macro- and micronutrients, the importance of an individualized balance of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates as well as daily requirements of vitamins and minerals. NDs guide patients to good sources of various micronutrients, information on the utilization of optimal ratios for nutrients and nutrient subtypes, how micronutrients are absorbed and assimilated, what can be done to support optimal absorption and assimilation, how our DNA impacts our nutrition, micronutrient, and vitamin needs, as well as knowledge surrounding deficiency, storage, excretion, and toxicity.

Naturopathic physicians are a key guide, leading patients to life-long prevention and wellness through individualized, whole-person-focused nutrition. Click here to find an ND near you in the US and Canada.

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Dr. Jessalyn Shamess – BINM

Jessalyn Shamess, ND, BSc, BHK shares her path to naturopathic medicine as a recent graduate of the naturopathic medical program at Boucher Institute of Naturopathic Medicine (BINM).

Laying the groundwork to become an ND

“Before I started naturopathic medical school at BINM, I was working in public health research. I loved the field, but really missed the person-to-person interaction and desired to return to clinical work. I had a deep interest in chronic disease management and felt that naturopathic medicine was well suited in that area. As a perpetually inquisitive individual, I loved the fact that naturopathic medicine figured out why a person was not well, not just what to do for them.

I knew naturopathic medicine was the right path for me for many reasons. I’ve always loved nutrition and biochemistry, and I found naturopathic medicine to be strong in those areas. The principles of holism and the idea of the intrinsic ability of the body to heal also really connected with my personal philosophy on health. Ultimately, working with patients was what really showed me that naturopathic medicine was the right profession for me. I really enjoyed what I could offer my patients, whether that was simply listening or being directly a part of their healing process.”

BINM as a springboard

“I was attracted to BINM for the fact that their students routinely score as one of the highest across all of the accredited schools in board examinations. I also saw the benefits of the small class sizes.

It is impossible to put into words all that I gained while I was at BINM. Aside from the obvious clinical and medical skills, I appreciated that teachers and professors did not just stick to teaching content, but also taught how to expend thinking skills to be better at approaching clinical problems. From a self-development side, I found that the counseling program was also top-notch and encouraged students to continue to develop as a person aside from the development of clinical skills. These skills will continue to help me in my career. BINM really challenged me, but also provided the support, skills, and encouragement to face those challenges.

As a student, Dr. Shamess served as Chapter president of the Boucher Naturopathic Medical Student Association (NMSA). “I found NMSA to be an extremely positive experience, and learned a great deal about the profession. I was able to connect with so many different types of NDs which really helped me gain a greater perspective on the realm of career possibilities. Being surrounded by so many bright young leaders further ignited my passion and gave me even more tools to reach my goals and dreams as an ND.”

Advice for aspiring NDs

“Take time to observe and speak to naturopathic physicians! This is a great way to learn about the profession. Even better, go see an ND yourself to get the best idea of what it is like to experience naturopathic holistic care. If you are passionate about health and wanting to give a lot to your patients, this is a great profession to be in.”

Click here to find an ND near you in the US and Canada, or read other naturopathic doctor success stories.

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Dr. Nicole Redvers – A Leader in Indigenous Health – CCNM

“My training and education have provided a bridge between two divergent worldviews. As an ND, I am not placed in either of these worlds – Indigenous or conventional, which allows me to maintain perspective and consider all angles of a research question, a community problem, or even a patient case.”

Laying the groundwork to become an ND

Raised in a small Indigenous community on the Deninu K’ue First Nation in the Northwest Territories, Nicole Redvers, ND, MPHc did not have access or exposure to naturopathic providers, although she spent much of her early life in nature, using traditional medicines when needed. She still recalls the scent of her grandfather’s bear grease that he used as medicine.

In what may seem as a twist of fate, Dr. Redvers accidentally came across naturopathic medicine while in college studying sports medicine. This lead her on the path to naturopathic medical school, where she then graduated from the Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine.

“I was excited to be able to have the opportunity to learn about other traditional medicine systems in addition to more Western ways of knowing. Coming from an Indigenous background, I found that the standard medical system wasn’t addressing my communities’ problems and was too narrow in treatment approaches. I wanted to have the flexibility and freedom like my ancestors did, to do what is right for the patient in front of me at that particular time.”

Finding fulfillment as an ND

Following graduation, Dr. Redvers returned to the Northern Territories and launched a home-based practice which allowed her to stay with her infant daughter. Soon after, she and a few other local providers began the first integrative medical clinic in the area. Over the nine years that Dr. Redvers operated the clinic, it grew to include 17 providers and staff working out of a 4,000 square foot clinic.

In 2019, Dr. Redvers changed paths and began working at the University of North Dakota’s School of Medicine and Health Sciences as an assistant professor.

“My career has been diverse. I have been able to practice, teach, research and continue my work on the charity I co-founded, the Arctic Indigenous Wellness Foundation. Having a diverse skill set enables me to keep the flexibility for the projects and work that needs to be done in the Indigenous health arena. Moving to an institutional setting has definitely been different than running my own clinic and practice; however, I am still able to keep up with many of the things I love.

I am very excited to be helping to develop the very first PhD in Indigenous Health in North America. Dr. Donald Warne, MD, MPH spear-headed this initiative and has brought together an amazing team of five Indigenous scholars to develop the curriculum for the program. I will be teaching two courses in the PhD program, two courses in the Master’s of Public Health Indigenous Health specialization, as well as supervising and mentoring students. It is somewhat sad that this is the first of its kind in North America; however, I am very proud of the University of North Dakota for taking leadership on this important endeavor. It is a post-master’s PhD that can be done from anywhere in the world with two onsite visits per year.”

Advice for aspiring NDs

Dr. Redvers encourages prospective students to think outside of the box. “There are many roles that NDs can play in society outside of clinical practice, so don’t feel pigeonholed to a specific path. Diversification can be a strength in this profession both financially, personally and professionally.”

Finally, remember your roots and the people who helped you along the way. “I would not be where I am today without the amazing support of family, friends, colleagues, and my communities. I especially wouldn’t be where I am today without the helpful guidance of my elders helping to set me on a path to support our Indigenous communities.”

Learn more about Dr. Redvers:

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